Traumatic Brain Injury Facts

    What is a TBI?

  • A TBI is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain.
  • TBI's can range from mild, in which there is just a brief change in cognition or concsciousness, to severe, in which there is an extended period of unconsciousness and memory loss.1
  • TBI Signs and Symptoms

  • Physical: headaches, sleep disturbance, dizziness, balance problems, nausea or vomiting, fatigue, visual disturbances, sensitivity to light, ringing in the ears
  • Cognitive: Concentration problems, temporary gaps in memory, attention problems, slowed thinking, difficulty finding words
  • Emotional: irritability, anxiety, depression, mood swings 2
  • How Many Are Affected by TBI?

  • In 2010, about 2.5 million emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, or deaths were associated with TBI—either alone or in combination with other injuries—in the United States.
  • TBI contributed to the deaths of more than 50,000 people.
  • TBI was a diagnosis in more than 280,000 hospitalizations and 2.2 million ED visits. These consisted of TBI alone or TBI in combination with other injuries.3
  • Affected more than 300,000 military personnel between 2000-2013 4
  • What are the Leading Causes of TBI?

  • 35.2% of all TBI's are caused by a fall.
  • 17.3% of all TBI's are caused by a motor accident.
  • 16.5% of all TBI's are the result of being struck by an object.
  • 10% of all TBI's are caused by an assault.
  • 21% of TBI's have an unknown or other cause.3

  • References

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Report to Congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003.

    2. Defense and veterans brain injury center

    3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonfatal Traumatic Brain Injuries Related to Sports and Recreation Activities Among Persons Aged ≤19 Years — United States, 2001–2009. MMWR 2011; 60(39):1337–1342.

    4. department of defense