Recovery in memory function in the first year following TBI in children:
Primary objective: To examine memory skills, at acute, 6- and 12-monthly stages, following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Research design : Prospective, longitudinal, between-group design, comparing pre-injury and postinjury intellectual and memory measures, across three levels of injury severity.
Methods and procedures: Investigation of memory skills in a group of 76 children who had sustained a mild, moderate or severe TBI. Specific tests were used to measure immediate and short-term memory, and more complex multi-trial learning.
Main outcomes and results: The severe TBI group exhibited greater deficits on memory tasks, irrespective of modality, in the acute, 6- and 12-month post-injury stages, in comparison to mild and moderate TBI groups. Performance was dependent on both injury severity and task demands.
Conclusions:Memory difficulties are present during the acute, 6- and 12-months following childhood TBI. With a clearer understanding of the memory deficits following TBI, appropriate strategies can be taught and interventions implemented for these children.
Head impacts from season of high school football produce measurable change in brain cells
Repeated impacts to the heads of high school football players cause measurable changes in their brains, even when no concussion occurs, according to research from UT Southwestern Medical Center's Peter O'Donnell Jr. Brain Institute and Wake Forest University School of Medicine.
Recovery of executive skills following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI): A 2 year follow-up:
Primary objective: Disruptions to executive function (EF) may occur as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI), in the context of direct damage to frontal regions or in association with disruption of connections between these areas and other brain regions. Little investigation of EF has occurred following TBI during childhood and there is little evidence of possible recovery trajectories in the years post-injury. The present study aimed to (i) examine whether a dose-response relationship exists between injury severity and EF; (ii) document recovery of EF in the 2 years post-injury and (iii) determine any additional predictors of outcome in the domain of EF.
Methods and procedures:The study examined EF in a group of 69 children who had sustained a mild, moderate or severe TBI. Four components of EF were assessed: (i) attentional control; (ii) planning, goal setting and problem solving; (iii) cognitive flexibility; and (iv) abstract reasoning
Conclusions:Children sustaining severe TBI at a young age are particularly vulnerable to impairments in EF. While these difficulties do show some recovery with time since injury, long-term deficits remain and may impact on ongoing development.